Chapter 11 – White Space

White space or negative space is important to allow the learner to frame the content and understand the concept. Space can be used to help direct the learner’s eye towards important information by chunking and separating instructional elements. In Chapter 11, Linda Lohr (pg. 272) illustrates that space is important to help the learner to receive clear instructional concept. If the space is overcrowded or busy looking, then the learner would be over stimulated and frustrated with learning the concept. Another hinder in learning is trapped space. For example, if the learner had a learning disability, then white space can be used to clear any diversions from learning the concept.
Trapped space traps the eye to a meaningless place or is not aligned properly and doesn’t look right when viewing the concept.

It is important to remember that white space does not serve as a dead space, but that it is an important element as any other instructional design feature. Linda Lohr described that space can be used to clarify text; essential features can provide the reader to increase in the rate of reading and to recognize redundancies, access relevant pieces of information, and to see the structure of the document (pg. 274). Space and balance can enhance learning by distributing the information. The equilibrium provides the symmetry of visual arrangement which helps the learner to transition from one visual element to the next.


Chapter 6 – Organization

Linda Lohr (pg. 136) discussed how hierarchy plays a role in precluding the basic concepts for the learner by creating chunks of data to make it easier for the learner to grasp. Also, creating charts and graphs will help the learner contrast and compare the information provided. To compare and contrast the information, the learner will be able to analyze the relative importance for each criterion or see quantitative differences more clearly.

When the instructional designer is creating a second learning tool through visual hierarchy or organization, the goal is to help the learner focus his or her attention on the data, not the container. Without developing the hierarchy, the information will be cluttered and confusing for the learner. The tools to use in working with hierarchy can be image, color, size, typography, position, and repetition. These can be used to emphasize the importance of data communication.

EdTech 506 – Chapter 11

Color, depth, and white space.

Many of us dream in color, but about 90% of the time, we do not remember it. Color can create a perceived depth, depending on the saturation, hue, and intensity of the color. The more intense of the color, the more depth is defined within the picture or web design. White space is also a form of color intensity depending on how to evoke the emotions or directions of the learner.  There are many reasons to use color such as helping students identify how to perform a procedure or not, attract and control the attention of the learner, rank, or aid in decision making processes.  Also, reasons not to use color is it may not be necessary, whereas white space can be just as effective as well.


Lohr, Linda L. (2008). Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance: Lessons in Visual Literacy (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc

EdTech 506 – Chapter 5

Figure and ground provide the visual elements of what is supposed to be perceived.  The perception principle is to describe the mind’s natural tendency to make distinctions.  The illustrations I have provided are to show a plain white background versus the black background to show which image draws the attention of the learner.

The three types of figure-ground issues can confuse the learner.  The images the interfere with the instructional messages are:

1)  The figure and ground compete.

2)  The figure should be the ground and vice versa.

3)  The figure and ground create an optical illusion.

My goal is to illustrate the difference between black and white, image and non-demonstrative image, simple versus complicated.  The goal is to visually concentrate on either the black or the white and create an understanding of the instructional message.


Lohr, L. (2008).Creating graphics for learning and performance: lessons in visual literacy (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ.

EdTech 506 – Chapter 8

This week, I worked on ensuring that contrast is no two items that are the same.  As illustrated in my picture of contrast, although the proximity of my fonts are the same, the color within the word ‘contrast’ is different.  My goal is to make the colors aggressive in the picture as shown.

When working on my alignment, my goal was to have visual connection, thus creating a table to represent the alignment of all CARP ideas connected.

The repetition was to create a consistency of my fonts, although the look was fading into the box, the fonts were consistent.

And proximity, my goal was to illustrate by placing all fonts within the table, this represented that the CARP table was all related to one another.

I just made a new Voki for EdTech 506

EdTech 506 – Chapter 4

This week, I learned about using the analyze, create, and evaluate module in my Procurement corporate training method.  The goal is to develop a social responsibility for the supply management chain.  To describe the principles of how social responsibility plays a role in Procurement, you have to explain why it is important to understand the value of social responsibility in purchasing.

To create a visual design process for the instructional method, you have to generate a visual idea that works with PAT, principles, actions, and tools.  PAT allows you to develop the schema of how the procurement process works.  The goal of visual design is to allow the aesthetic appeal of the instruction so that your learner can develop a visual concept of what the information is about.

As an instructional designer, you would want to promote generative thinking where the learner can analyze the problem, come up with solutions to solve the problem, and to contribute to the whole process of procurement.

Chapter 10 – Shape Tools

The Justification Activity on pg 260 of the Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance (Lohr) are as follows:

– This flowchart is to illustrate to the professional adults in the Procurement and Supply Chain Management business activity.
– I used instructional function of simple shapes to help the adult learners understand the process of purchasing as described on page 250. In addition to, the basic cycle would help the learners understand how each function collaborates in making the purchasing process.
– My “user-test” comments stated that more explanations are needed to describe the cycle of procurement. After a brief explanation of how the procurement process works, my “user-test” colleague commented that the cycle flow makes better sense.
– I have not revised my image below as I will make additions to my instructional design later in this course.

EdTech 506 – Chapter 6

In Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance, Chapter 6 looks into organizing visuals. The chunk is considered a unit of information. The goal of my instructional design is to present chunk to visually appeal or use cues to help the adult learner that signals such as using images of gears that are providing direction for the learner towards a hierarchy principle of Procurement and Supply Management in the corporate training world.  In the world of Procurement, diversity; environment; ethics; and financial will be used in my instructional design for hierarchical design.

EdTech 506 – Design Journal

The three types of cognitive loads are:
– extraneous load, which is the type of cognitive load that is based on content irrelevant to the important message.
– germane load, which is a type of cognitive load that is based on the content that has meaning for the learner.
– intrinsic load, which is a type of cognitive load that is based on the content of complexity.

My goal is to focus on the working memory (short-term memory), which allows the learner to hold and process limited amount of information within 5 to 20 seconds.